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Troyes

Troyes (French pronunciation: ​[tʁwa]) is a commune and the capital of the Aube department in north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 150 km (93 mi) southeast of Paris. This area is known as the Champagne region of Northern France. Many half-timbered houses (mainly of the 16th century) survive in the old town. Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa.

History
For the ecclesiastical history, see bishopric of Troyes
Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa which led north to Reims and south to Langres and eventually to Milan;[1] other Roman routes from Troyes led to Poitiers, Autun and Orléans.[2] It was the civitas of the Tricasses,[3] who had been separated by Augustus from the Senones. Of the Gallo-Roman city of the early Empire, some scattered remains have been found, but no public monuments, other than traces of an aqueduct. By the Late Empire the settlement was reduced in extent, and referred to as Tricassium or Tricassae, the origin of French Troyes.
The city was the seat of a bishop from the fourth century – the legend of its bishop Lupus (Loup), who saved the city from Attila by offering himself as hostage is hagiographic rather than historical[4] – though it was several centuries before it gained importance as a medieval centre of commerce.
In the early cathedral on the present site, Louis the Stammerer in 878 received at Troyes the imperial crown from the hands of Pope John VIII. At the end of the ninth century, following depredations to the city by Normans, the counts of Champagne chose Troyes as their capital; it remained the capital of the Province of Champagne until the Revolution. The Abbey of Saint-Loup developed a renowned library and scriptorium. During the Middle Ages, it was an important trading town, and gave its name to troy weight. The Champagne cloth fairs and the revival of long-distance trade and new extension of coinage and credit were the real engines that drove the medieval economy of Troyes.
In 1285, when Philip the Fair united Champagne to the royal domain, the town kept a number of its traditional privileges. John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and ally of the English, aimed in 1417 at making Troyes the capital of France, and he came to an understanding with Isabeau of Bavaria, wife of Charles VI of France, that a court, council, and parlement with comptroller’s offices should be established at Troyes. It was at Troyes, then in the hands of the Burgundians, that on 21 May 1420, the Treaty of Troyes was signed by which Henry V of England was betrothed to Catherine, daughter of Charles VI, and by terms of which he was to succeed Charles, to the detriment of the Dauphin. The high-water mark of Plantagenet hegemony in France was reversed when the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, and Joan of Arc recovered the town of Troyes in 1429.
In medieval times Troyes was an important international trade centre, centring around the Troyes Fair. The name troy weight for gold derives from the standard of measurement evolving here.[5]
The great fire of 1524 destroyed much of the medieval city, in spite of the city’s numerous canals.

Main sights
Many half-timbered houses (mainly of the 16th century) survive in the old town.
Hôtels Particuliers (palaces) of the old town : Hôtel de Marisy, Hôtel du Lion Noir…
The Hôtel de Ville, Place Alexandre Israël, is an urbane example of the style Louis XIII. On the central corps de logis which contains the main reception rooms, its cornice is rhythmically broken forward over paired Corinthian columns which are supported below by strong clustered pilasters. Above the entrance door the statue of Louis XIV was pulled out of its niche and smashed in 1793, during the Reign of Terror at the height of the French Revolution; it was replaced in the nineteenth century with the present Helmeted Minerva and the device in its original form, now rare to see “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité, ou la Mort”
In the Salle du Conseil (Council Chamber) a marble medallion of Louis XIV (1690) by François Girardon, born at Troyes, survived unscathed.

Museums
Museum of Modern Art (Musée d’Art Moderne)
Maison de l’outil et de la pensée ouvrière
Vauluisant Museum : Historical museum of Troyes and Champagne-Ardenne
Museum of hosiery
Hôtel-Dieu-Lecomte apothecary
Saint-Loup Museum (Museum of fine arts)
Di Marco Museum (Open from 1 April to 1 October, each year)

Churches
Cathedral western front.
Not having suffered from the last wars, Troyes has a high density of old religious buildings grouped close to the city centre. They include:
Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul Cathedral
Saint-Nizier Church, in Gothic and Renaissance style, with remarkable sculptures. Classified Monument Historique ( French equivalence) in 1840.
the Gothic Saint-Urbain Basilica (thirteenth century), with a roofing covered by polished tiles. Proclaimed basilica in 1964, it was built by Jacques Pantaléon, elected pope in 1261, under the name of Urbain IV, on grounds where the workshop of his father was. Classified Monument Historique in 1840.
Sainte-Madeleine Church. Glittery jube sculpted by Jean Gailde, with a statue of Saint Martha. Saint Jean district. Classified Monument historique in 1840.
the Saint-Jean Church, with a Renaissance chancel, tabernacle of the high altar by Giraudon. On the portal, coat of arms of Charles IX. Classified Monument Historique in 1840.
the Gothic Saint-Nicolas Church, dating to the beginning of the sixteenth century, with a calvary chapel shaped rostrum is reached by a monumental staircase. On the south portal, two sculptures by François Gentil: David and Isaiah.
Saint-Pantaléon Church, with numerous statuary from the sixteenth century.
Saint Remy Church. It includes a crooked spire, from a height of 60 m (196.85 ft), its external clock with only one hand, a sundial with the Latin lettering sicut umbra dies nostri super terram (“our days on earth pass like the shade”).
church of Saint-Martin-ès-Vignes. It has stained glass windows of the seventeenth century by the local master-verrier Linard Gontier.
Several Troyes churches have sculpture by The Maitre de Chaource.

Population
The inhabitants of the commune are called Troyens.

Economy
Troyes is home to the Lacoste company production headquarters, one of the most popular fashion brands in the Western World. It is also home of prize-winning chocolatier Pascal Caffet.[6]

Transport
The train station Gare de Troyes offers connections to Paris, Dijon, Mulhouse and several regional destinations. Troyes is at the junction of the motorways A5 (Paris – Troyes – Langres) and A26 (Calais – Reims – Troyes). Troyes – Barberey Airport is a small regional airport.

Sport
Troyes is the home of association football club Troyes AC, or ESTAC. ESTAC now plays in Ligue 2, the second highest division of French football, having played in Ligue 1 as recently as 2013.

In popular culture
In games
Troyes (2010) is a board game named after the city, published by Pearl Games, UPlay.it edizioni, and Z-Man Games.[7][8]

In literature
Chapter 28 of James Rollins’ sixth Sigma Force novel, The Doomsday Key (2009), is named after Troyes, France, as the city plays an important role in the plot.

Personalities
Troyes was the birthplace of:
Patroclus of Troyes (3rd century), martyr
Rashi (1040–1105), biblical and Talmudic commentator
Hughes de Payens (1070–1136), Knight of the First Crusade and founder of the Knights Templar
Chrétien de Troyes, 12th-century trouvère
Jacques Pantaléon, (c. 1195–1264), Pope Urban IV
Pierre Pithou (1539–1596), Calvinist jurisconsult and scholar, co-editor of the Satire Ménippée,
Linard Gonthier (1565–after 1642), glass painter
Pierre Mignard (1610–1695), painter,
François Girardon (1628–1715), sculptor
Nicolas Siret (1663–1754), composer
Émile Coué (1857–1926) pharmacist, hypnotist, and creator of La méthode Coué (“Every day, in every way, I’m getting better and better’).
Édouard Herriot (1872–1957), Radical politician of the Third Republic who served three times as Prime Minister of France.
Maurice Marinot (1882–1960), Glass Artist. Painter
Jean-Marie Bigard, French stand-up comedian, writer and director.
Saint Marguerite Bourgeoys, (1620–1700) a founder of Montreal, Canada
Djibril Sidibé (footballer born 1992), footballer
Abdou Sissoko footballer
Blessed Louis Brisson, O.S.F.S. (1817-1908) priest and founder the Oblates of St. Francis de Sales
Christian Martin, French Boxing Champion; Founder and CEO of CRMI, a construction company that focuses on single family homes, built in the traditional French artisan fashion; President of the Stade Troyen, a very successful boxing club that counts in its ranks a couple of professional boxers competing on the national level.

Twin towns
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

Troyes is twinned with:
Alkmaar, Netherlands
Chesterfield, England[9][10]
Tournai, Belgium
Darmstadt, Germany, since 1958[11]
Zielona Góra, Poland, since 1970[12]

See also
Count of Troyes
University of Technology of Troyes
Communes of the Aube department
Troy weight#Etymology

References
1.Jump up ^ Traces of the Roman paving lie 3 m (9.84 ft). below the rue de la Ciré.(“Balades dans l’histoire du vieux Troyes”)
2.Jump up ^ Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
3.Jump up ^ Ptolemy, Geography 8.13, mentions the Tricasses and their city Augustobona.
4.Jump up ^ Attwater, Donald. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, (1945) Reprint: 1981, p. 223.
5.Jump up ^ Lloyd, John; Mitchison, John (2010). The Second Book of General Ignorance (First ed.). London: Faber and Faber Ltd.
6.Jump up ^ chocolatier. “Pascal Caffet, Meilleur Ouvrier de France pâtissier, Champion du monde des métiers du dessert”. Pascal-caffet.com.
7.Jump up ^ “Troyes (2010)”. Board Game Geek.
8.Jump up ^ “Troyes (2010)”. Z-Man Games.
9.Jump up ^ “British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]”. Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013.
10.Jump up ^ “Chesterfield Twinning Links”. Chesterfield Borough Council.
11.Jump up ^ “Städtepartnerschaften und Internationales”. Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German).
12.Jump up ^ “Zielona Góra Miasta partnerskie”. Urząd Miasta Zielona Góra.


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Autore:  In: HD, Storia
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